13. MAN AND SOCIETY (Lucia Hudeocvá, 4.D)
Humans, from the very beginning, were not able to live on their own. So they started to form a bigger groups. These organized groups created their system of laws and accepted behaviour, which can be defined as a society. These laws and behaviour make it possible for people to live together.
Society has a right to expect people to obey the law. If anybody doesn´t and is dangerous for society, he can be locked up. Most people support the idea, that a person should be punished very severely for a serious crime but less severely for a lesser crime. During the trial, lawyers ask witnesses to discover the truth.
Witnesses take an oath to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing like truth by putting their right hand on Bible. While some crimes are not serious, like stealing, others threaten human life- robbery, burglary, mugging, kidnapping or murder.
Now I tell you something about standards of behaviour, principes and conventions. Acts of courtesy are considered as normal, for example holding opened door for someone, taking the end place in queue, putting hand over mouth when coughing or yawing. It is impolite to speak with full mouth or stare at someone. Social conventions also aply to body language. Keeping hand in pocket when aou are introduced to someone, is considered impolite. It is negative signal when you have crossed hands or legs.
Standarts of behaviour are used in many situations of our life. First of all, when you go to sit down at the table, a gentleman is supposed to pull back the chair for the lady. It is considered rude to eat and drink noisily, if you are in good restaurant. But in pubs it is considered as normal. It is polite to ask a permission before you smoke in people´s homes. Smoking is forbidden in many public places, like shops, theatres, bus stations, cinemas, but sometimes people ignore it.
Between people in society sometimes appear conflicts. They are caused by personalities of people or by their culture. Everybody solves these problems by other way. Somebody go away from the situation and other is agressive. Then it can become violent. Our world is full of violnece, an there is much crime. It is unbelieveable, that also young people are criminals. I sometimes ask why. They have low moral education in family or in school. Criminals are usually people, who haven´t free time activities. So in many towns there are for young people youth organizations.
Their aim of these organizations is training young people to use thei initiative, teaching them to use their practical skills, and helping them to become useful members of society. It attaches importance to moral values such as loyalty and responsibility. Their activities are usually a mixture of sport and community service. But there are many informal ways, in which can young people form groups together or share inaterests.
Society is divided into three main groups – upper class, middle class, and the lower or working class. This is known as the class system and most people know which class they belong to. Upper class people own beatiful houses, villas, modern cars. They work as judges, stockbrokers or company directors. They eat caviar, drink sampagne. In their free time they go to opera or ballet, go on expencive holidays. Typical for middle class is living in a flat, semi-detached or detached house. They work as teachers, managers or doctors. In free time they make some sport, they eat health food like wholemeal bread and go on summer holidays. The working class finish their education on high school. Free time their spend by watching soap operas or drinking in pubs.
Society takes care of its members. Many countries support the idea of government money paid to people who are unemployed. In some cases it is useful, but on the other hand a part of our population considers being unemployed more beneficial than oing to work. I think they are only lazy and they haven´t big ambitions. Uneploymnet benefits should motivate people to find work, but some of them are very passive.
I think this system is not very good, because there are many differences between people. As I said, society is the most important thing for us, because there we can make friends, be happy and develope our skills.